Heated Surface Jets in Steady Crosscurrent

by Robert W. Zeller, (A.M.ASCE), Supervisory Sanitary Engr.; FWPCA, Portland, OR,
John A. Hoopes, (A.M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof.; Civ. Engrg. Dept., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
Gerard A. Rohlich, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg. and Dir. of Water Resources Ctr.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1971, Vol. 97, Issue 9, Pg. 1403-1426

Document Type: Journal Paper


Twenty-two surveys were made of the velocity and temperature patterns from the discharge of the two outfall conduits of a 190 Mw power plant into Lake Monona, WI. These surveys indicated that, beyond a shallow region close to shore, the warm water spreads as a two-dimensional momentum jet in a surface layer about 1 m thick. A mathematical model, using the integral mass, momentum and energy equations, is developed to describe the jet temperature, velocity, width and curvature; the effects of wind shear are included in the model. Data reduction techniques were programmed to facilitate compilation of extensive field data. The model predicted jet center line velocities within 2 cm per sec and center line jet temperatures within 1° C of the field observations. Entrainment coefficients were 1 to 10 times greater than for jets in a quiescent fluid. Vertical entrainment was negligible. The surface heat loss from the jets to the atmosphere was negligible relative to the rapid dilution of the heat in the lake.

Subject Headings: Jets (fluid) | Mathematical models | Hydrographic surveys | Temperature effects | Water discharge | Hydro power | Power plants | Lakes | Wisconsin | United States

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