Junction Losses in Laminar and Transitional Flows

by Donald K. Jamison, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Virginia Military Inst., Lexington, VA,
James R. Villemonte, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1971, Vol. 97, Issue 7, Pg. 1045-1063

Document Type: Journal Paper


Analytical and experimental studies were carried out to develop additional data on energy losses at a junction for systems operating in the Reynolds number range of between 10 and 10,000. The test pipe fittings were short-radius, galvanized screwed tees operated so as to produce both a combination and division of flow. The fittings were mounted in a 3/4-in. standard black iron pipeline with SAE No. 10 cylinder oil being circulated by a gear pump driven by a variable speed motor. The analytical phase of the program yielded fitting loss coefficients which can be used to estimate the energy loss due to the fitting over and above that due to straight pipe friction. It was concluded from an analysis of the results that the relationship between the loss coefficients and Reynolds number for pipe fittings can be represented by a family of curves similar in format to those of the Moody diagram for flow in straight pipes without fittings.

Subject Headings: Pipelines | Laminar flow | Energy loss | Reynolds number | Iron (material) | Oil pipelines | Cylinders | Pumps

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