Lateral Refraction in Proximity of Structures

by Ron K. H. Adler,
Haim B. Papo,

Serial Information: Journal of the Surveying and Mapping Division, 1969, Vol. 95, Issue 1, Pg. 93-102

Document Type: Journal Paper


Lateral refraction is an unavoidable problem in the proximity of structures. The objectives of the investigation described were the determination of the magnitude of the refractional influence and the development of procedures for considering its effect on horizontal directions. A series of experiments was carried out under laboratory conditions and a study made of application of the procedures developed. The results stress the the necessity of correcting observations for lateral refraction effects prior to adjustment. The simple methods and techniques outlined were found applicable under normal field conditions.

Subject Headings: Laboratory tests

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