Functional Design of Rapid Sand Filters

by H. E. Hudson, Jr.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 1963, Vol. 89, Issue 1, Pg. 17-28

Document Type: Journal Paper


Water quality and operating practicability must be the aims in rapid sand filter design. The following design variables are examined to determine how their manipulation by the designer can effect the filter operation: Filtration rate; effective size, thickness and porosity of filter media; maximum filter head loss; surge amplitude; floc strength; and concentration of suspended matter in the applied water. These variables are related to the design objectives by functional equations. Data on effects of backwashing inequalities are also included and evaluated. Examples of resulting designs are described. It is suggested that there is much promise in the use of dual filter beds containing layers of heavy, fine, and coarse lightweight filter media.

Subject Headings: Sand filters | Sandy soils | Water quality | Soil water | Thickness | Porosity | Head loss (fluid mechanics) | Water management

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