Simulation of Lime-Soda Softening

by Li-Shiang Liang, Partner; Water Purification Assocs., Cambridge, Mass.,
Henry G. Sideropoulos, Grad. Student; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Northeastern Univ., Boston, Mass.,
Irvine W. Wei, Assoc. Prof.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Northeastern Univ., Boston, Mass.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 5, Pg. 935-945

Document Type: Journal Paper


A computer model for lime-soda softening has been developed based on the solution of simultaneous chemical equilibrium equations. The effects of ionic strength and temperature on the dissociation constants, solubility products, and activity coefficients are accounted for as well as the effect on magnesium on the solubility product of calcium carbonate. Synthetic waters with systematic variations in composition were lime softened in the laboratory. Qualitatively, the experimental data agree well with the results of computer simulation. Further research is necessary to improve the numerical accuracy of the model.

Subject Headings: Computer models | Lime | Model accuracy | Solubility | Calcium carbonate | Numerical models | Equilibrium | Temperature effects

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