Transient Analysis for Shallow Cooling Ponds

by E. Eric Adams, (A.M.ASCE), Research Engr. and Lect.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,
Antonis D. Koussis, (A.M.ASCE), Asst. Prof.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Energy Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 2, Pg. 141-153

Document Type: Journal Paper


A transient model, based on the concept of equilibrium temperature TE, and surface heat transfer coefficient K, is used to explore the transient response of shallow cooling ponds subject to fluctuating meteorology. The model can be viewed as quasi-steady in that steady state pond temperatures are computed as a function of exponentially filtered meteorology. For linear heat transfer, K is constant while values of TE are filtered. For nonlinear heat transfer both K and TE are filtered. Comparison with results from a numerical model with fully nonlinear heat loss suggests that the linear model provides acceptable results and errors on the conservative side of overpredicting extreme temperatures, while somewhat greater accuracy can be obtained with the nonlinear model. Use of a steady state model with averaged meteorology is also discussed. These models are suggested for use at the preliminary design stage where many potential ponds must be evaluated.

Subject Headings: Numerical models | Errors (statistics) | Model accuracy | Heat transfer | Meteorology | Filters | Transient response | Cooling (wastewater treatment)

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