Design Criteria for Cooling-Water Outlet Structures

by Michael Schatzmann, Scientific Coordinator; Univ. of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany,
Eduard Naudascher, (F.ASCE), Prof. and Dir.; Inst. of Hydromechanics, Univ. of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 3, Pg. 397-408

Document Type: Journal Paper


This paper describes some laboratory studies utilizing buoyant and nonbuoyant tracers to investigate the effects of the initial conditions on the lateral mixing of cooling water or wastewater discharges into rivers. The paper begins with a short phenomenological description of the dispersion of cooling-water side discharges into rivers from which a concept for quantifying the effect of the outfall parameters on the near-field mixing is then deduced. By means of a virtual-source concept and two bulk parameters describing the stability of the near-field density stratification and the strength of an assumed reference source, the results can be presented in a straightforward graphical form. These graphs provide a first estimate of design criteria for an outlet structure which, e.g., is to be designed to maximize the rate of near-field mixing for a given cooling-water discharge.

Subject Headings: Water discharge | Cooling (wastewater treatment) | Laboratory tests | Rivers and streams | Parameters (statistics) | Buoyancy | Probe instruments | Temperature effects

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