Thermal Predictions using Integral Energy Model

by Dennis E. Ford, Hydro.; Environmental Lab., U.S. Army Engr. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.,
Heinz G. Stefan, (M.ASCE), Prof.; Dept. of Civ. and Mineral Engrg., St. Anthony Falls Hydr. Lab., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 1, Pg. 39-55

Document Type: Journal Paper


A one-dimensional integral energy model (mixed-layer model) is used to simulate the seasonal temperature cycle of three, morphometrically different, temperate lakes. In the model, turbulent kinetic energy supplied by wind shear is used to entrain denser water into the upper mixed layer by working against gravity. The model is calibrated with data from one lake for 1 yr and verified against data from two other lakes and also against data from other years. Predictions of the onset of stratification, surface and hypolimnetic temperatures, mixed layer depths, and periods of turnover are all in agreement with data.

Subject Headings: Thermal analysis | Hydrologic data | Lakes | Integrals | Thermal power | Simulation models | Temperature effects | Wind power

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