Cooling Impoundments: Classification and Analysis

by Gerhard H. Jirka, (A.M.ASCE), Asst. Prof.; School of Civ. and Environmental Engrg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y.; formerly, Research Engr., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,
Donald R.F. Harleman, (M.ASCE), Ford Prof. of Engrg. and Dir.; R.M. Parsons Lab. of Water Research and Hydrodynamics, Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Energy Division, 1979, Vol. 105, Issue 2, Pg. 291-309

Document Type: Journal Paper


Cooling impoundments can have different degrees of internal temperature stratification and of internal flow circulations. Classification criteria are presented that predict the existence of these internal conditions based on the size and shape of the impoundment, the condenser flowrate, and temperature rise, and the design of intake and discharge structures. A computer model for the prediction of transient temperature distributions in cooling impoundments has been developed. Depending upon the hydrothermal condition one of four model elements is applied: (1)Natural reservoir model for computation of lightly loaded ponds or of natural baseline conditions; (2)a deep stratified cooling pond model for well stratified impoundments; (3)a shallow dispersive cooling pond model for well channelized elongated pond shapes; and (4)a shallow recirculating cooling pond model for ponds with significant internal circulation patterns. Comparison with applicable field data shows good agreement with the predictive models.

Subject Headings: Computer models | Ponds | Hydraulic models | Hydrologic models | Cooling (wastewater treatment) | Temperature effects | Water storage | Temperature distribution

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