Air Entrainment in Radial Flow Towards Intakes

by Akalank K. Jain, Reader in Civ. Engrg.; Government Coll. of Engrg. and Tech., Raipur, India,
Ramachandra J. Garde, Prof. of Hydr. Engrg.; Univ. of Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Kittur G. Ranga Raju, Prof. of Hydr. Engrg.; Univ. of Roorkee, Roorkee, India,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1978, Vol. 104, Issue 9, Pg. 1323-1329

Document Type: Journal Paper


The aim of this paper was to understand clearly the role of the different parameters on vortex formation. A study was made where the vanes for circulation are radial and thus the approach flow is free from circulation. Air entrainment in radial flow at intakes occurs when the submergence is greatly reduced and the flow is of the gulping type with the liquid surface above the intake pulsating. It was shown by experimentation that the critical submergence is practically independent of the viscosity, as well as the surface tension of the liquid. In radial approach flow towards vertical pipe intakes, the safe submergence to prevent air entrainment must always be greater than the value predicted by the proposed equation, for ranges of the Froude number between 1.1 and 20.

Subject Headings: Radial flow | Submerged flow | Submerging | Surface Tension (water properties) | Entrainment | Radiation | Air flow | Water intakes

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