Microcharacteristics of Chemically Stabilized Granular Materials

by Kevin M. O'Connor, Staff Engr.; Woodward-Clyde Consultants, San Francisco, Calif.,
Dimitrios K. Atmatzidis, Asst. Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Ill.,
Raymond J. Krizek, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Ill.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 1978, Vol. 104, Issue 7, Pg. 939-952

Document Type: Journal Paper


The effects of grain size and shape, gradation, and density on grain concentrations and number of grain contacts were studied by use of ungrouted and gravel specimens. The chemical grout was a solution of hydrated sodium silicate, water, and reactant (solution of ethyl acetate and formamide); after establishing the role of the reactant components, the influence of variations in grout composition on the microstructure and macroproperties (miniscus formation, shrinkage, hardness, and adhesion to glass) of grout were examined. Finally, the interaction between grout and sand was evaluated in terms of percentage of pore volume occupied by grout and changes in sand grain characteristics; photomicrographs were used to analyze the effect of grout on individual grains, and the grain concentrations on failure planes in grouted sand were studied by means of enlarged photographs. Also assessed were the usefulness and accuracy of sieve analyses, the changes in grout composition and concentration with distance from point of injection.

Subject Headings: Granular materials | Grain (material) | Soil analysis | Soil grouting | Sand (material) | Chemicals | Chemical grouting | Failure analysis

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