End Restraint Effects on Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Sand

by Kenneth L. Lee, (M.ASCE), Deceased; Formerly, Prof., School of Engrg. and Applied Sci., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, Calif.,
Frank J. Vernese, Staff Engr.; Dames and Moore, Cranford, N.J.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 1978, Vol. 104, Issue 6, Pg. 705-719

Document Type: Journal Paper


Cyclic triaxial tests were performed on various soils at different densities and different consolidation pressures, using regular and lubricated ends to explore the possible effect of end restraint. In addition, a number of supplementary tests were also performed, all of which led to the conclusion that for sands tested, the following factors had no measurable effects on the cyclic triaxial strengths: cyclic frequency, load shape, small center dowels at the ends, and sample diameter. The end restraint study showed that the cyclic strength was greater for frictionless ends than for regular ends by amounts ranging from zero for nondilatant soils, to as much as 35% for dense, very dilatant sands. For the usual cases of loose to medium dense sands, for which cyclic tests are most frequently performed, the apparent strength increase is only about 10%, which has already been included in the Cr factor for converting cyclic triaxial results to field strengths.

Subject Headings: Triaxial tests | Soil strength | Cyclic tests | Cyclic strength | Sandy soils | Consolidated soils | Load tests | Triaxial loads

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