Energy for Production of Consumable Materials

by George M. Wesner, (M.ASCE), Vice-Pres.; Culp/Wesner/Culp, Clean Water Consultants, Santa Ana, Calif.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1978, Vol. 104, Issue 3, Pg. 401-414

Document Type: Journal Paper


Energy requirements were determined for the production of the following consumable materials used in various water and wastewater treatment operations: activated carbon, alum, ammonium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, chlorine, ferric chloride, calcium oxide, methanol, oxygen, ozone, polymers, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid. Energy estimates are based on data from manufacturers, information in the technical literature and calculations. Data used in developing the energy estimates are discussed. Precise energy requirements are difficult to determine for some materials because some manufacturing processes produce more than one product, and most chemicals are produced by more than one method.

Subject Headings: Energy consumption | Materials processing | Chloride | Sodium | Sulfur | Chemical processes | Hydro power | Wastewater treatment

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