Effect of Branch Spacing on Losses for Dividing Flow

by George E. Hecker, (M.ASCE), Dir.; Alden Research Labs., and Assoc. Prof. of Civ.Engrg., Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, Mass.,
N. A. Qureshi, Engr.; Gilbert Assocs., Inc.; formerly, Grad. Student, Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, Mass.,
J. B. Nystrom, Lead Engr.; Alden Research Labs., Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, Mass.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1977, Vol. 103, Issue 3, Pg. 265-279

Document Type: Journal Paper


Since few data are available regarding the effect of branch spacing on discharge and energy loss coefficients for dividing flow, tests were conducted for a line manifold using three branches. A branch geometry typical of an actual diffuser design was used, and the branch to main pipe diameter ratio and the relative spacing between branches was varied by increments. The variation in discharge coefficient is presented as a function of the ratio of velocity head to total head, whereas loss coefficients are plotted versus relative velocity. A family of curves for each diameter ratio shows the effect of relative branch spacing. Test data indicated that the branch discharge coefficient increased and branch losses decreased with a decrease in spacing due to the change in velocity profile in the main pipe. However, the loss coefficient for flow past the branch in the main pipe increased with a decrease in spacing.

Subject Headings: Pipelines | Spacing | Pipe flow | Energy loss | Geometrics | Diffusion | Head loss (fluid mechanics) | Curvature

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