Transient Three-Dimensional Circulation of Lakes

by Ralph Ta-shun Cheng, (M.ASCE), Hydrologist; U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 1977, Vol. 103, Issue 1, Pg. 17-34

Document Type: Journal Paper


A mixed analytical and numerical model to study the wind-driven, transient, three-dimensional circulation in lakes is presented. Emphasis is placed on the formulation and development of the model, which consists of a formal analytical solution together with a system of depth-averaged conservation equations. After solving the depth-averaged system numerically by the finite element technique, the three-dimensional velocity profiles are calculated from the formal solution. Simulation of an idealized lake shows good agreement on the general circulation pattern and wave characteristics with the works of others. The limitation of this model is examined, and a solution is proposed to accommodate it.

Subject Headings: Transient response | Water circulation | Lakes | Numerical models | Three-dimensional models | Three-dimensional analysis | Wind engineering | Finite element method

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