Half a Century Progress in Soft Ground Tunneling

by George A. Fox, (F.ASCE), Executive Vice Pres. and Chf. Engr.; Grow Tunneling Corp., New York, N.Y.,
Louis E. Nicolau, (M.ASCE), Sr. Design Engr.; Grow Tunneling Corp., New York, N.Y.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Construction Division, 1976, Vol. 102, Issue 4, Pg. 637-667

Document Type: Journal Paper


The paper summarizes major developments in the practice of soft ground tunneling in the United States, highlighting the important tunnels constructed in the last half century. The evolution of the shield, of the cast-iron fabricated steel or concrete lining, of the rate of progress concreting, grouting and cost over the last 50 yr are presented. The procedures and improvements are given of the major soft ground tunnels: Holland, Detroit-Windsor, Sumner-Boston, Lincoln, Queens Midtown, Chicago Subways, Brooklyn-Battery, Callahan-Boston, N.Y. Sewer Tunnels, San Francisco-BART, Washington-WMATA. The conclusion points out expected future improveents in procedure, equipment, progress rates, and cost.

Subject Headings: Soft soils | Tunnels | Tunneling | Cast iron | Fabrication | Steel | Concrete | Linings | United States | New York | New York City | Chicago | Illinois

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