Evaluation Strategies of Metal Pollution in Oceans

by Kenneth Y. Chen, (A.M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof.; Environmental Engrg. Program, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif.,
R. Addis Lockwood, Asst. Prof.; Dept. of Thermal Fluid Systems, School of Engrg., California State Univ. at Northridge, Los Angeles, Calif.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1976, Vol. 102, Issue 2, Pg. 347-359

Document Type: Journal Paper


The ecological significance of metal inputs into the ocean from different sources are evaluated with six parameters in addition to the conventional analysis of total concentration and mass emission rate from a waste stream. The parametric approaches include: (1) The association of heavy metals with settleable solids — partition between solid and solution phase; (2) settling characteristics of solids in waste streams and their effects on the subsequent distribution of metal species; (3) correlation of metal contents in different size fractions of particles with metals enrichment in the proximity of the discharge area; (4) chemical elutriation in relation to bioavailability; (5) effects of mixing, dispersion, and settling of suspended particulates on the release of trace metals; and (6) bioassay and chemical analysis to determine the toxicities and food chain enrichment potentials of particulate waste stream or elutriates or specific solid chemical species. Data from analysis of wastewater, surface runoff, dredged sediments, and ocean sediments affected by sewage discharge are presented to illustrate each section.

Subject Headings: Chemical wastes | Rivers and streams | Solid mechanics | Metals (chemical) | Pollution | Seas and oceans | Ocean engineering | Parameters (statistics)

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