Light-Gage Steel Bolted Connections without Washers

by Ken P. Chong, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof.; Dept. of Civ. and Architectural Engrg., Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo.,
Robert B. Matlock, Dir.; Corporate Engrg., Stran-Steel Corp., Building Systems Subsidiary of National Corp., Houston, Tex.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Structural Division, 1975, Vol. 101, Issue 7, Pg. 1381-1391

Document Type: Journal Paper


The behavior of bolted connections without washers in light-gage steel is studied by extensive testing. Influence of pertinent parameters such as bolt diameter, edge distance, bolt spacing, etc., on the strength of the bolted connections are explored. Empirical formulas are presented and compared against those for bolted connections with washers. Warping of free edges, which occurs towards the end of testing, has negligible effect on the load carrying capacity of the connection. Tensile stress on net section at failure is a function of r, Fut, and d/s. By intuition the allowable shear stress on the gross cross-sectional area of bolts is the same for bolts with and without washers. The 23 confirmatory tests with washers compared favorably (within ±20%) with those of Winter's. The slip loads were generally raised with higher torques.

Subject Headings: Load tests | Shear stress | Steel | Bolted connections | Load bearing capacity | Load factors | Bolts | Parameters (statistics)

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