Makeup Requirements for Cooling Ponds

by John C. Sonnichsen, Jr., (M.ASCE), Engr.; Hanford Engrg. Development Lab.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1975, Vol. 101, Issue 1, Pg. 15-25

Document Type: Journal Paper


This country's demand for electricity has doubled every 10 yr for the last few decades. At present, the rate of growth is even greater. Expert opinion suggests this trend will continue for the next 20 yr. Assuming this is true, the number of kilowatt-hours produced annually will quadruple over this same time span. In the future, power plants will rely more heavily on closed evaporative cooling systems. Water makeup requirements for operating power plant cooling ponds is further reviewed. Water loss is first defined and then computed in terms of the type and size of pond. A distinction between using a natural or man-made pond is drawn. For natural ponds, this flux is considered part of the total natural flux. Results suggest that water loss is dependent upon the type as well as the size of pond employed.

Subject Headings: Power plants | Cooling (wastewater treatment) | Temperature effects | Ponds | Hydro power | Electric power | Professional societies | Evaporation

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