American Society of Civil Engineers

Water Supplies Versus Demand in Countries of Arabian Peninsula

by M. J. Abdulrazzak, (Assoc. Prof. of Hydro., Dept. of Hydro. and Water Resour. Mgmt., Fac. of Meteorology, Envir. and Arid Land Agri., King Abdulaziz Univ., P.O. Box 40937, Jeddah, 21511, Saudi Arabia)

Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 121, No. 3, May/June 1995, pp. 227-234, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: Rapid economic development in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula has resulted in a substantial imbalance between the available water resources and demand. Demand has increased from 5.95 billion to 22.6 billion m³ in the ten year period 1980–1990. Ambitious agricultural programs and the absence of conservation measures have lead to significant overdraft of the existing water resources. If current practices continue, water demand may reach 35.4 billion m³ by the year 2010. Considerable volumes will have to be mined from nonrenewable ground-water reserves. In this paper, water supply and demand problems for each country of the Arabian Peninsula are examined. Projections for water supply and future demands are made. Suggestions for comprehensive water planning are made that emphasize conservation measures and optimum allocation both within and between countries.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Arid lands
Middle East
Water supply
Water resources
Water demand
Water allocation policy
Water management