American Society of Civil Engineers

Composting, Past, Present and Future

by Amy L. Li, (Greeley and Hansen, Philadelphia, United States), Carl M. Koch, (Greeley and Hansen, Philadelphia, United States), and Darlene E. Mckinney, (Greeley and Hansen, Philadelphia, United States)

pp. 290-295

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: Environmental Engineering
Abstract: Over the past ten years, the composting process has taken on a different look as a method of processing municipal sludge. Today it is one of the most popular and prevalent methods of sludge processing. This paper reviews the development of the composting process from the early 1960s to the present, from the first extended pile system to more sophisticated in-vessel systems and odor control systems. It also summarizes the capital and operation and maintenance costs for different types of composting systems and provides guidelines for determination of approximate costs.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Waste treatment
Waste disposal
Municipal wastes
Maintenance costs

Author Keywords:
Waste Disposal
Sewage Treatment - Sludge Disposal
Capital Costs - Composting Systems - Maintenance Costs - Sludge Composting