American Society of Civil Engineers

Effect of Wastewater Application Device on Ammonia Volatilization

by J. Zirschky, M.ASCE, (Sr. Envir. Engr., Dames & Moore, 455 East Paces Ferry Rd., Ste. 200, Atlanta, GA 30363) and D. Crawford, (Lab. Mgr., Duck Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, City of Garland, Rte. 2, Box 909, Sunnyvale, TX 75182)

Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 115, No. 6, November/December 1989, pp. 1258-1263, (doi:

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Document type: Technical Note
Abstract: The ammonia-volatilization efficiencies of sprinklers (9/32-in.- and 5/16-in.-nozzle sizes), fan nozzles, and gated pipe are studied. Median ammonia-volatilization efficiencies over that occurring with gated pipe of 11.6%, 7.74%, and 2.8% are found for 9/32-in. (0.7cm) and 5/16-in. (0.80cm) sprinklers and for fan nozzles, respectively. The difference in volatilized efficiency between all application devices is significant. Sprinklers volatilize significantly more ammonia than do fan nozzles, which, in turn, volatilize more ammonia than does gated pipe (p = 0.025). Sufficient data are not available to determine the effects of water or air temperature or pH on volatilization. The amount of ammonia volatilization is not sufficiently large to be of design significance.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Application methods
Overland flow
Wastewater management