American Society of Civil Engineers

Hazard-Based Analysis of Travel Distance in Urban Environments: Longitudinal Data Approach

by Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos, Ph.D., (corresponding author), A.M.ASCE, (Visiting Assistant Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Research Program Manager, Center for Road Safety, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051. E-mail:, Mouyid Bin Islam, S.M.ASCE, (Graduate Research Assistant, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968; formerly, School of Civil Engineering, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051. E-mail:, Dionysia Perperidou, Ph.D., (Postdoctoral Research Associate, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Polytechniou, National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens 15773, Greece. E-mail:, and Matthew G. Karlaftis, Ph.D., M.ASCE, (Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Zografou Campus, 9 Heroon Polytechniou, National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens 15780, Greece. E-mail:

Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 138, No. 1, March 2012, pp. 53-61, (doi:

     Access full text
     Purchase Subscription
     Permissions for Reuse  

Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: This paper focuses on identifying important factors that determine activity-based travel distance in urban areas. Building on past research that has demonstrated the conceptual equivalence of hazard models applied to either temporal or spatial settings, the length of the distance from origin to destination is statistically modeled as longitudinal data using hazard-based modeling methods with data from Athens, Greece. Based on the data analysis, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity provides the best statistical fit, and a number of factors significantly affect travel distance, including socioeconomics and demographics, trip characteristics, mode choice, trip frequency, time of day for the trip, and type of activity participation. The proposed methodological approach and the research findings help to better understand travel behavior in terms of trip distance in the urban areas, an issue of significant importance for both transportation researchers and planners.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Urban areas
Travel patterns
Data analysis
Spatial analysis

Author Keywords:
Travel distance
Origin destination patterns
Spatial hazard modeling
Survival analysis