American Society of Civil Engineers


Energy-Efficient Approach to Cold-Weather Concreting


by Lynette A. Barna, (corresponding author), Aff.M.ASCE, (Research Civil Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755-1290. E-mail: Lynette.A.Barna@usace.army.mil), Peter M. Seman, (Research Civil Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755-1290. E-mail: Peter.M.Seman@usace.army.mil), and Charles J. Korhonen, Ph.D., P.E., (Consultant, ARCTIKOR, 17764 Tapiola Rd., Chassell, MI 49916-9402. E-mail: korhonenc@hotmail.com)

Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 11, November 2011, pp. 1544-1551, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000262)

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Document type: Journal Paper
Special Issue: Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Paving Materials
Abstract: Conventional cold-weather concreting is expensive and very energy inefficient. Common practice requires artificial heating of the raw materials and the surrounding environment to create suitable curing conditions for normal concrete. Antifreeze concrete is a new approach to cold-weather concreting without the need for artificial heating. This saves time, money, and energy. The antifreeze concrete technology has been proven in numerous full-scale field demonstrations and is compatible with current concrete construction practices. A laboratory study established the practicality of using antifreeze concrete and developed the tools to mix and cure concrete in subfreezing temperatures. Eight candidate antifreeze formulations were developed in the laboratory and subjected to initial screening tests that showed they were capable of being workable, entraining air, and meeting the design freezing point. Performance testing showed that the strength gain when cured at -4° C is as good as conventional concrete cured at +5° C and that antifreeze mixtures can be made durable. High dosages of chemical admixture used in antifreeze concrete mixtures were not harmful to the concrete. It is recommended that agencies conduct testing on their own to become familiar with the antifreeze mixtures before widespread use.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Concrete
Portland cement
Concrete admixtures
Freezing
Freeze and thaw
Compressive strength

Author Keywords:
Cold-weather concrete
Portland cement
Concrete admixtures
Concrete freezing
Freeze-thaw durability
Compressive strength