American Society of Civil Engineers


Investigation into the Total Dissolved Gas Dynamics of Wells Dam Using a Two-Phase Flow Model


by M. Politano, (corresponding author), (Associate Research Engineer, IIHR—Hydroscience and Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, 300 S. Riverside Dr., Iowa City, IA 52242-1585. E-mail: marcela-politano@uiowa.edu), A. Arenas Amado, (Ph.D. Candidate, IIHR—Hydroscience and Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, 300 S. Riverside Dr., Iowa City, IA 52242-1585. E-mail: antonio-arenasamado@uiowa.edu), S. Bickford, (Supervisor of Relicensing, Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County, 1151 Valley Mall Pkwy., East Wenatchee, WA 98802-4497. E-mail: ShaneB@dcpud.org), J. Murauskas, (Senior Aquatic Resource Biologist, Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County, 1151 Valley Mall Pkwy., East Wenatchee, WA 98802-4497. E-mail: joshm@dcpud.org), and D. Hay, M.ASCE, (Principal, Oakwood Consulting Inc., 237 Turtlehead Rd., Belcarra BC, Canada. E-mail: duncanhay@shaw.ca)

Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 137, No. 10, October 2011, pp. 1257-1268, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000383)

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Document type: Case Studies
Abstract: Bubbles entrained by spilled water at hydroelectric projects increase the concentration of total dissolved gas (TDG), which may lead to gas bubble disease in fish. In this paper, the TDG dynamics downstream of Wells Dam are investigated using a two-phase flow model that accounts for the effect of the bubbles on the flow field. The TDG is calculated with a transport equation in which the source is the bubble/liquid mass transfer, a function of the gas volume fraction and bubble size. The model uses anisotropic turbulence modeling and includes attenuation of normal fluctuation at the free surface to capture the flow field and TDG mixing. The model is validated using velocity and TDG field data. Simulations under two plant operational configurations are performed to gain a better understanding of the effect of spill operations on the production, transport, and mixing of TDG. Model results indicate that concentrated spill releases create surface jets that result in the lowest TDG concentration downstream. On the other hand, spreading the spill release, with moderate flow through each gate, produces the highest TDG values downstream as a result of more air available for dissolution and smaller degasification at the free surface.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Gas
Bubbles
Two phase flow
Spillways
Water quality
Computational fluid dynamics technique
Dams

Author Keywords:
Total dissolved gas
Bubbles
Two-phase flow
Spillways
Water quality
Computational fluid dynamics
TDG