American Society of Civil Engineers

A System Dynamic Model for Coordinated Planning of Bus Rapid Transit and Transit Oriented Development

by Lan Wu, (Transportation College, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008, China; and College of Auto and Traffic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China. E-mail:, Ruey Long Cheu, (Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, 79968, Texas, USA. E-mail:, Xuewu Chen, (Transportation College, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008. E-mail:, and Luis David Galicia, (Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, 79968, Texas, USA. E-mail:
Section: Public Transportation and Rail Transit, pp. 2939-2949, (doi:

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: ICCTP 2011: Towards Sustainable Transportation Systems
Abstract: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has been increasingly regarded as a cost-effective mode of transportation. In order for BRT ridership to be sustainable, the planning of BRT stations must be coordinated with transit oriented development (TOD). Yet, no tool exists for planners to systematically model the BRT system with TOD. This paper proposes three stages of TOD (incubation, rapid growth, and maturity) that mirror the three BRT deployment phases (limited, moderate, and aggressive). The system dynamic (SD) approach has been suggested to model the progress of TOD and BRT deployment over time. The SD model consists of three modules: population, BRT, and TOD. The population and BRT modules have been developed and are described in this paper.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Rapid transit systems