American Society of Civil Engineers

Limit States Design of Pile Foundations in Clay under Combined Action of Transient Uplift Loads and Frost Jacking

by Konstantin Ashkinadze, Ph.D., P.Eng., (Eco-Technica Inc., 3821-78 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6B 3N8, Canada; mailing address: 1228 Wershof Road, Edmonton, Alberta T6M 2M2, Canada. E-mail:
Section: Limit State Design in Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 656-663, (doi:

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: Geo-Risk 2011: Risk Assessment and Management
Abstract: The paper addresses design of friction and end-bearing piles in clayey soil under combined action of transient uplift loads and frost adfreeze. This practically important subject has been insufficiently studied by researchers. Conventional design practice is based largely on common sense and engineering intuition. The paper introduces a new type of analytical model called "three-column model" for rigorous nonlinear finite element analysis of the soil-pile-soil system. By numerical experiment, the nature of interaction of the transient and frost load was found to be complex; they are neither directly additive nor mutually exclusive. The conventional design practice for structural analysis of friction piles, which discounts this interaction, is therefore non-conservative. Limit states pertinent to the problem are identified and geotechnical and structural design of the piles in terms of Limit States Design paradigm is discussed.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Limit states
Pile foundations
Load factors