American Society of Civil Engineers


Development of a Comprehensive Sediment Transport Method in First Order Watersheds with Contour Coal Mining


by D. K. Martin, S.M.ASCE, (Graduate Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, 161 O.H. Raymond Bldg., Lexington, KY 40506-0281. E-mail: dkmart2@uky.edu), N. A. Adams, (Undergraduate Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, 161 O.H. Raymond Bldg., Lexington, KY 40506-0281. E-mail: naad222@uky.edu), J. F. Fox, M.ASCE, (Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, 161 O.H. Raymond Bldg., Lexington, KY 40506-0281. E-mail: jffox@engr.uky.edu.), A. Jones, (Professor, Department of Geography & Geology, Eastern Kentucky University, 105 Roark Building, Richmond, KY 40475. E-mail: alice.jones@eku.edu), H. Rowe, (Assistant Professor, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 77019. E-mail: hrowe@uta.edu), S. Kelly, (Undergraduate Assistant, Department of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Purdue University, Potter Engineering Center, 500 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2022. E-mail: Kellysa@purdue.edu), and K. Foley, (Undergraduate Assistant, Geology Department, Wittenberg University. E-mail: s11.kfoley@wittenberg.edu)
Section: Watersheds, pp. 4717-4734, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/41173(414)491)

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011: Bearing Knowledge for Sustainability
Abstract: δ13C, δ15N, TOC, TN, and C/N measurements in the Southern Appalachian forested region were obtained from forest surface soils, reclaimed surface soils, the streambanks, and the transported sediments at the watershed outlet in first-order watershed with differing disturbances. It was found that the δ13C and δ15N tracers successfully discriminated between the sediment sources because of the δ13C and δ15N tracers’ ability to reflect the biogeochemical changes that occur in the soil matrix. The δ13C and δ15N tracers successfully reflected the degree of disturbance in a watershed. A shift in the δ13C and δ15N values was evident between the summers of 2007 and 2009, which was attributed to tree throw caused ice and rain storms and high velocity winds. The un-mixing model determined that the percentage of sediment originating from the forest soils increased from 2007 to 2009 in both disturbed watersheds because erosion rates in the forest increased after the tree throw occurred. The ability of the δ13C and δ15N tracers to reflect land-use disturbances as well as natural disturbances is a new contribution that has not been presented in the literature. An advancement of the dual isotope tracer method was presented to account for the percentages of carbon and nitrogen eroding from all three sediment sources.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Watersheds
Sediment transport
Coal mining