American Society of Civil Engineers

PDM++: Planning Framework from a Construction Requirements Perspective

by David K. H. Chua, M.ASCE, (Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. E-mail: and K. W. Yeoh, (corresponding author), (Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 E-mail:

Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 137, No. 4, April 2011, pp. 266-274, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Section Heading: Cost and Schedule
Abstract: Construction requirements represent the key preconditions for construction. These include topological precedence, key resources, space requirements, etc. Consequently, identifying them is necessary for feasible construction planning to be achieved. Despite this, little attention has been given to the impact of construction requirements on a project schedule, possibly because of the lack of a good tool for representing these requirements. This paper distinguishes construction requirements into static and dynamic types, according to changes in the need of the requirement during its life cycle. A modeling framework, PDM++, is then proposed. The framework deals with schedule constraints arising from both static and dynamic construction requirements, provides greater semantic expression to capture schedule constraints unambiguously, and facilitates the representation of interdependent conditional relationships. The concept of meta-intervals is also devised to represent complex requirements involving several activities and schedule constraints, and it facilitates modeling at higher levels of plan abstractions. Finally, an illustrative case study is presented to show the applicability of PDM++ in representing schedule constraints and alternative scheduling from a construction requirements perspective.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Construction management

Author Keywords:
Construction requirements
Static construction requirements
Dynamic construction requirements
Logical operators
Alternative schedules
Schedule constraints