American Society of Civil Engineers


Iterative Formulas and Estimation Formulas for Computing Normal Depth of Horseshoe Cross-Section Tunnel


by Jiliang Liu, (Graduate student and Research Assistant, Research Center of Water Engineering Safety and Disaster Prevention, Northwest A&F Univ., Yangling, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. E-mail: liujiliang430@163.com), Zhengzhong Wang, (Professor and Director, Research Center of Water Engineering Safety and Disaster Prevention, Northwest A&F Univ., Yangling, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. E-mail: wangzz0910@163.com), and Xing Fang, P.E., (corresponding author), M.ASCE, (Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849-5337 E-mail: xing.fang@auburn.edu)

Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 11, November 2010, pp. 786-790, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000254)

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Document type: Technical Note
Discussion: by M. Bijankhan and et al.    (See full record)
Discussion: by S. K. Gupta E-mail: sunkmg@gmail.com and et al.    (See full record)
Discussion: by Pooyan Hosieni E-mail: p.hoseini@ut.ac.ir and et al.    (See full record)
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Abstract: This note presents iterative formulas that can be used to calculate the normal depth for all types of horseshoe cross sections. Based on the principle of gradual optimization fitting, general estimation formulas were developed for direct computation of the normal depth for all types of the standard horseshoe cross sections. The estimation formulas have high accuracy for hydraulic designers to use in comparison with the accurate normal depths determined from iterative formulas, and the maximum relative error is less than 0.5%.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Hydraulics
Open channels
Drainage
Design
Cross sections

Author Keywords:
Hydraulics
Open channel
Drainage design