American Society of Civil Engineers


Turbulence Characteristics in Flows Subjected to Boundary Injection and Suction


by Subhasish Dey, (corresponding author), (Chair Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India E-mail: sdey@iitkgp.ac.in) and Tushar K. Nath, (Doctoral Research Fellow, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India. E-mail: nath_tushar@rediffmail.com)

Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 136, No. 7, July 2010, pp. 877-888, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000124)

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: The influence of seepage (lateral flow) on the turbulence characteristics in free-surface flows over an immobile rough boundary is investigated. Steady flows having zero-pressure gradient over an immobile rough boundary created by uniform gravels of 4.1 mm in size were simulated experimentally with injection (upward seepage) and suction (downward seepage) applied through the boundary. A Vectrino (acoustic Doppler velocimeter) was used to measure the instantaneous velocities, which are analyzed to explore second- and third-order correlations, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent energy budget, and conditional Reynolds shear stresses. It is observed that the second-order correlations decrease in presence of injection and increase in suction. The turbulent diffusivity and mixing length increase in presence of injection and decrease in suction. The third-order correlations suggest that the ejections are prevalent over the entire flow depth. The near-boundary flow is significantly influenced by the existence of upward seepage, which is manifested by a reduction in streamwise flux and the vertical advection of streamwise Reynolds normal stress. In addition, the upward flux and the streamwise advection of vertical Reynolds normal stress are also affected. The streamwise flux of turbulent kinetic is found to migrate upstream, while the vertical flux of turbulent kinetic energy is transported upward. The fluxes increase in presence of injection and decrease in suction. Energy budget evidences a lag between the turbulent dissipation and production and an opposing trend in the turbulent and pressure energy diffusions. A quadrant analysis for the conditional Reynolds shear stresses reveals that the ejection and sweep events are the primary contributions toward the total Reynolds shear stress production, with ejections dominating over the entire flow depth. The effect of seepage is shown to affect the magnitude of such events. However, in case of sweeps, this phenomenon is the opposite. The mean-time of occurrence of ejections and that of sweeps in suction are more persistent than those in no-seepage and injection.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Hydraulics
Open channel flow
Turbulent flow
Steady flow
River beds
Seepage
Turbulence

Author Keywords:
Hydraulics
Open channel flow
Turbulent flow
Flow characteristics
Steady flow
Streambeds
Seepage