American Society of Civil Engineers

Heavy Structures Supported by Soil-Cement Columns

by Lisheng Shao, Ph.D., P.E., G.E., M.ASCE, (Chief Engineer, Hayward Baker Inc. Western Region, 1780 Lemonwood Drive, Santa Paula, CA, 93060. E-mail: and Ken Ivanetich, M.ASCE, (Area Manager, PE, Hayward Baker Inc., 2322 Bates Avenue, Concord, CA, 94520. E-mail:
Section: Chemical Modification Methods, pp. 125-130, (doi:

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics
Abstract: Deep soil mixing and jet grouting have been widely used to construct soil-cement columns for the support of heavy structures such as tanks, cement silos, and storage buildings. Although the installation methods may vary with deep soil mixing or jet grouting, the end product of soil-cement columns will behave similarly under the heavy structure loads. In many cases, the soil-cement mass treatment option offers the owner substantial savings over driven/drilled pile programs, and will allow some projects to become financially feasible, that may have otherwise been disregarded due to the excessive costs encountered with conventional foundation systems This paper covers design methodology, production work, and quality control and testing, with supporting figures for three recent ground improvement projects. The design considerations include the static settlement, and column group bearing capacity under the structure static and seismic loads. Extensive field and laboratory tests were performed to investigate the soil-cement strength and modulus. The ground. improvement programs on these three projects were proven successful under real operational loads.

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