American Society of Civil Engineers

Correcting Liquefaction Resistance for Aged Sands Using Measured to Estimated Velocity Ratio

by Ronald D. Andrus, (corresponding author), (Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634-0911 E-mail:, Hossein Hayati, (Grad. Res. Asst., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634-0911), and Nisha P. Mohanan, (Proj. Geotech. Engr., Golder Assoc. Inc., Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054; formerly, Grad. Res. Asst., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634-0911)

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 135, No. 6, June 2009, pp. 735-744, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: Factors for correcting liquefaction resistance for aged sands using ratios of measured to estimated shear-wave velocity (MEVR) are derived in this paper. Estimated values of shear-wave velocity (VS) are computed for 91 penetration resistance-VS data pairs using previously published relationships. Linear regression is performed on values of MEVR and corresponding average age. Age of the sand layer is taken as the time between VS measurements and initial deposition or last critical disturbance. It is found that MEVR increases by a factor of about 0.08 per log cycle of time, and time equals about 6 years on average when MEVR equals 1 for the recommended penetration resistance-VS relationships. The resulting regression equation is combined with the strength gain equation reported by Hayati et al. 2008 in “Proc., Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics IV,” to produce a MEVR versus deposit resistance correction relationship. This new corrective relationship is applied to create liquefaction resistance curves based on VS, standard penetration test blow count, and cone tip resistance for sands of various ages (or MEVRs). Because age of natural soil deposits is usually difficult to accurately determine, MEVR appears to be a promising alternative.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Aging (material)
Cone penetration tests
In situ tests
Penetration tests
Sand (soil type)
Soil liquefaction
Wave velocity