American Society of Civil Engineers


Water Resources in Sudan: Enhancing Rainfall Harvesting Methods for Water Supply


by S. Mohamed-Ali, (North Carolina A&T State University, Department of Civil, Architectural, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, 1601 E Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411), S. Luster-Teasley, Ph.D., (North Carolina A&T State University, Department of Civil, Architectural, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, 1601 E Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411), and E. Nzewi, Ph.D., P.E., (Southern University and A&M College, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Suite 321 Pinchback Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70813)

pp. 2300-2310, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/41036(342)230)

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers
Abstract: In Sudan, the climate ranges from arid in the north and northwest to wet-and-dry tropical weather in the southwest. In semi-arid zones in Sudan such as West region, safe drinking water is rare. In particular, areas in North Darfur and South Kordofan States rely on groundwater supply (wells) or water storage methods called hafir or earth dams for their water supply. Hafir are small lakes constructed in low lying areas to allow water to be stored during rainfall events. Improved water supply methods, to provide adequate water quality and water supply, are acutely needed for this region. Rainfall collection is one of water sources in Sudan and rainwater harvesting (RWH) methods can be implemented to improve the production of crops and livestock in the region. In Sudan, rainfall decreases from south to north, the annual average varying from 120 cm (47 in) in the south to less than 10 cm (4 in) in the north. Agricultural production and domestic water needs would be very difficult to sustain without the use of locally viable rainwater harvesting techniques to enhance water supply; and the reduction of water demand by water conservation. In North Darfur, where the rainfall is concentrated over short periods of time, rainwater harvesting techniques have been developed for various types of water collection schemes by implementing domestic rain water harvesting. The potential to greatly improve water supply and water quality in Sudan exists. This can be achieved by designing and implementing modified rainwater harvesting methods from the United States and other regions that may be applicable in Sudan. This paper presents the water supply problems in Sudan and proposes RWH solutions tailored for the region. It also includes strategies for improving current RWH methods that are being used in developing regions.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Water resources
Sudan
Rainfall
Water supply
Water distribution systems