American Society of Civil Engineers


Middle Eastern Hydrologic History and Water Developments


by Mohammad Karamouz, F.ASCE, (Professor, School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran E-mail: karamouz@ut.ac.ir) and Sara Nazif, (Ph.D. Candidate, School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran E-mail: snazif@ut.ac.ir)
Section: International Water History, pp. 1-16, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40976(316)144)

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008: Ahupua’A
Abstract: In this paper, the history of water development activities related to Persian, Egyptian and other civilizations in the Middle East are discussed. The historical developments of Qanats, Madies, small dams as well as drainage systems, some still functioning, are addressed. An overview of Nile River with it’s over 1000 years of hydrological data, is presented. This river has been the centerfold of many water development activities that have affected the life of many people and the social and political developments in the north-east Africa. This discussion is followed by an overview of different stages of Aswan dam construction and operation. Finally, construction of many large dams as well as irrigation networks and desalination plants and water development in the last 30 years in the Middle East are discussed.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Middle East
Hydrology
History
Water management