American Society of Civil Engineers

Effect of Timber Ties on the Behavior of Historic Masonry

by Elizabeth Vintzileou, (Assoc. Prof., Fac. of Civ. Engrg., Dept. of Struct. Engrg., Natl. Tech. Univ. of Athens, Lab. of Reinforced Concrete, 5, Iroon Polytechniou str., GR 15773 Zografou, Greece. E-mail:

Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 6, June 2008, pp. 961-972, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: This paper presents the results of testing stone masonry wallettes in compression or in diagonal compression. The specimens that simulate a portion of perimeter walls of historic structures are made of three-leaf rubble stone masonry; they are horizontally reinforced with timber ties. Tests have proven that timber ties contribute to substantial enhancement of the ultimate strain of masonry subjected to compression, accompanied by reduction of the opening of vertical cracks. When timber reinforced masonry is subjected to diagonal compression, the cracking load is several times higher than that of the unreinforced masonry, whereas large diagonal cracks may open without disintegration of masonry. The experimental results are in accordance with in situ observations in historic structures.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Historic sites
Seismic effects