American Society of Civil Engineers

Diagenesis of Buried Chrome Ore Processing Residue

by Bruce M. Sass, (Research Leader, Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH E-mail:, Daniel T. Kremser, (Principal Research Scientist, Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH E-mail:, Mohit Bhargava, (Researcher, Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH E-mail:, and Jody Lipps, (Researcher, Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH E-mail:
Section: Chromite Ore Processing Residue, pp. 399-406, (doi:

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: GeoCongress 2008: Geotechnics of Waste Management and Remediation
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate mineralogical changes that have taken place in buried COPR due to hydration of mineral phases that were produced during ore processing. Along with the high-temperature phases, hydration products have been identified and quantified using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) with whole pattern (Rietveld) fitting. Detailed chemical compositions of all phases were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of particulate (3D imaging) and polished sections (2D imaging). Laboratory experiments were conducted using a synthetic brownmillerite to determine reaction pathways and rates of mineral transformation. When the experiments were run for 200 days and longer with calcium chromate, lithified pellets were observed. Electron micrographs showed that the pellets are composed of hydrogarnet with residual brownmillerite fragments, which were cemented by calcium monochromate. These results prove that when chromate availability is high, calcium monochromate is the favored reaction product.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Industrial wastes
New Jersey
Waste management