American Society of Civil Engineers

Density Functions for Entrainment and Deposition Rates of Uniform Sediment

by Mohamed Elhakeem, A.M.ASCE, (Postdoctoral Assoc., IHR-Hydroscience and Engrg.; formerly, Iowa Inst. of Hydr. Res., Univ. of Iowa, 300 S. Riverside Dr., Iowa City, IA 52242. E-mail: and Jasim Imran, M.ASCE, (Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civ. and Envir. Engrg., Univ. of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208. E-mail:

Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 133, No. 8, August 2007, pp. 917-926, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: A model has been developed for the prediction of the density functions of bed-elevation and entrainment and deposition rates of sediment in sand bed streams within the lower regime flow condition. The model incorporates both statistical and deterministic parameters in its form. A total of 46 experimental runs have been carried out in a recirculating tilting flume under the equilibrium flow condition using three grain sizes of uniform gradation to validate the model and estimate its parameters. The model parameters are related to the hydraulic conditions of flow and fluid and sediment properties through dimensional and regression analyses. The study has shown that the density functions of bed elevation and entrainment and deposition rates can be approximated quite satisfactorily with the normal distribution curve. Transformation of the density functions into the standardized normal distribution curve provides a unique pattern for all the experimental runs regardless of the sediment grain size, flow condition, and shapes and dimensions of the bed forms. The developed density functions have been utilized to provide a closure for the probabilistic Exner equation for uniform sediment.

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