American Society of Civil Engineers


Predicting the Loss of Chlorine and Chloramine Residuals in Metallic Pipes


by Robert M. Clark, (Environmental Engineering and Public Health Consultant, 9627 Lansford Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45242, E-mail: rmclark@fuse.net), Roy C. Haught, (Acting Chief, Water Quality Management Branch, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk, Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, E-mail: Haught.Roy@epa.gov), Srinivas Panguluri, (Senior Project Engineer, Shaw Environmental & Infrastructure, 5050 Section Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45212 E-mail: Srinivas.Panguluri@shawgrp.com), and William Roman, (Roman & Associates Consulting Engineers, 311 Hawthorne Ave, Los Altos, CA 94022, E-mail: roman@pacbell.net)

pp. 1-20, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/40941(247)146)

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Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: Water Distribution Systems Analysis 2006
Abstract: It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical and/or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water quality deterioration in a network is the loss of disinfectant residual that can weaken the barrier against microbial contamination. Data from studies conducted in a specially constructed pipe loop located at the U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio and from a study conducted in collaboration with the Burlingame California (CA) water utility is utilized to confirm the belief that chlorine and chloramine residual losses increase with increasing mass transfer in corroded metal pipes. Two models are compared. One is a wall reaction limited model such as the model embedded in EPANET and the other is a mass transfer limited model. In general it is concluded that the mass transfer limited model performs more effectively then the wall reaction limited or EPANET model. This paper was presented at the 8th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium which was held with the generous support of Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF).


ASCE Subject Headings:
Predictions
Chlorine
Pipes
Corrosion
Water distribution systems