American Society of Civil Engineers

Adaptive Modal Combination Procedure for Nonlinear Static Analysis of Building Structures

by Erol Kalkan, S.M.ASCE, (Grad. Res. Asst., Dept. of Civ. and Envir. Engrg., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616) and Sashi K. Kunnath, M.ASCE, (Prof., Dept. of Civ. and Envir. Engrg., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616)

Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 11, November 2006, pp. 1721-1731, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Award Title: Raymond C. Reese Research Prize, 2008
Abstract: A new pushover analysis procedure derived through adaptive modal combinations (AMC) is proposed for evaluating the seismic performance of building structures. The methodology offers a direct multimode technique to estimate seismic demands and attempts to integrate concepts built into the capacity spectrum method recommended in ATC-40 (1996), the adaptive method originally proposed by Gupta and Kunnath (2000) and the modal pushover analysis advocated by Chopra and Goel (2002). The AMC procedure accounts for higher mode effects by combining the response of individual modal pushover analyses and incorporates the effects of varying dynamic characteristics during the inelastic response via its adaptive feature. The applied lateral forces used in the progressive pushover analysis are based on instantaneous inertia force distributions across the height of the building for each mode. A novel feature of the procedure is that the target displacement is estimated and updated dynamically during the analysis by incorporating energy-based modal capacity curves in conjunction with constant-ductility capacity spectra. Hence it eliminates the need to approximate the target displacement prior to commencing the pushover analysis. The methodology is applied to two existing steel moment-frame buildings and it is demonstrated that the AMC procedure can reasonably estimate critical demand parameters such as roof displacement and interstory drift for both far-fault and near-fault records, and consequently provides a reliable tool for performance assessment of building structures.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Earthquake engineering
Model studies
Nonlinear analysis
Seismic effects