American Society of Civil Engineers


Liquefaction Phenomena underneath Marine Gravity Structures Subjected to Wave Loads


by M. B. de Groot, (GeoDelft, P.O. Box 69, 2600 AB Delft, The Netherlands. E-mail: m.b.degroot@geodelft.nl), M. Kudella, (Leichtweiss-Institute for Hydr. Engrg., TEch. Univ. Braunschweig, Beethovenstrasse 51a, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany. E-mail: mkudella@tu-bs.de), P. Meijers, (GeoDelft, P.O. Box 69, 2600 AB Delft, The Netherlands. E-mail: p.meijers@geodelft.nl), and H. Oumeraci, (Leichtweiss-Inst. for Hydr. Engrg., Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, Beethovenstrasse 51a, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany. E-mail: h.oumeraci@tu-bs.de)

Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 4, July/August 2006, pp. 325-335, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2006)132:4(325))

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: The foundation of a vertical breakwater or offshore gravity platform may fail due to wave loading. The question is discussed whether liquefaction phenomena in a sandy subsoil, such as the generation of residual excess pore pressures and cyclic mobility, may significantly contribute to such failure. Theory, descriptions of prototype failure cases, and several scale tests are analyzed. It is concluded that the most spectacular failure type “liquefaction flow failure” is only possible in the case of a subsoil of very loose sand or silt combined with a low drainage potential, e.g., by the presence of a clay layer or large structure dimensions. Three other potential failure types are more likely in other cases: stepwise liquefaction failure, stepwise failure, and wobble failure. Their relevance increases with decreasing relative density and decreasing drainage potential. Brief recommendations for assessment of each failure type are presented.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Breakwaters
Offshore platforms
Offshore structures
Soil liquefaction
Waves