American Society of Civil Engineers

Time Effect on Shear Strength and Permeability of Fly Ash

by A. Porbaha, (Tech. Res. Inst., TOA Corp., 1-3 Anzen-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230, Japan. E-mail:, T. B. S. Pradhan, (Assoc.Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Yokohama Natl. Univ., 156, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240, Japan), and N. Yamane, (Res. Engr., Tech. Res. Inst., TOA Corp., 1-3 Anzen-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230, Japan)

Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 1, April 2000, pp. 15-31, (doi:

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of time on the shear strength and the permeability of fly ash, a major solid by-product of thermoelectric power plants. Direct shear tests using Mikasa’s apparatus, conventional permeability tests, and consolidation tests were conducted on two silt-size fly ashes, with low free lime contents, obtained from two different power plants. The results show that the immediate settling of both fly ashes takes place in a short period of time during consolidation and does not change with time. The rate of increase in shear strength with time is different depending on the pozzolanic reactions taking place for the two ashes. The permeability tests under constant stresses of 49 and 98 kPa for 12 days show that the coefficient of permeability for the tested ashes is between 10–6 and 10–7 m/s. During this period the coefficient of permeability either remains constant (for the case of the ash with a lower free lime content) or is slightly reduced (for the ash with a higher free lime content). The practical implications and the limitations of using low lime silt-size fly ash in vertical drains in the stabilization of soft ground are also discussed.

ASCE Subject Headings:
Fly ash
Shear strength
Shear tests
Time factors