American Society of Civil Engineers


Water Quality in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Versus Intake Crib Location


by Erik R. Christensen, M.ASCE, (Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg. and Mech., Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201), Wasunthara Phoomiphakdeephan, (Res. Assoc., Dept. of Civ. Engrg. and Mech., Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI), and Irwan A. Ab Razak, (Res. Assoc., Dept. of Civ. Engrg. and Mech., Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI)

Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 5, May 1997, pp. 492-498, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1997)123:5(492))

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: The pollution plume outside Milwaukee Harbor, Wis., is investigated based on data for ammonia, chloride, and turbidity collected by the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) through the period 1983–94. Results of stepwise multiple regression show that the turbidity at station OH-13,B close to the Howard intake crib is strongly correlated to the turbidity at station OH-02,M in the outfall area of the Jones Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. For chloride the correlation is also significant, and for ammonia it is insignificant at OH-13,B but measurable at station NS-07,B close to the Linnwood intake. Kriging interpolation is used to obtain pollution estimates at unsampled locations during average spring conditions and during two episodic spring runoff events in 1985 and 1987 for which conditions may have been similar to those during the 1993 chryptosporidiosis outbreak. The results show that improved water quality can be obtained by extending the present Howard intake pipe up to 4.64 km and/or relocating the intake pipe about 2 km south of the present location at a larger bearing (N 71°E) relative to the north-south direction.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Ammonia
Chloride
Regression analysis
Turbidity
Water intakes
Water pollution
Water quality