American Society of Civil Engineers


The Battle of the Water Sensor Networks (BWSN): A Design Challenge for Engineers and Algorithms


by Avi Ostfeld, (Fac., Civ. and Envir. Engrg., Technion — Israel Inst. of Technol., Haifa 32000, Israel. E-mail: ostfeld@tx.technion.ac.il), James G. Uber, (Dept. of Civ. and Envir. Engrg., 765 Baldwin Hall, P.O. Box 210071, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071), Elad Salomons, (OptiWater, 6 Amikam Israel St., Haifa 34385, Israel), Jonathan W. Berry, (Sandia Natl. Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1110 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110), William E. Hart, (Sandia Natl. Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1110 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110), Cindy A. Phillips, (Sandia Natl. Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1110 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110), Jean-Paul Watson, (Sandia Natl. Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1110 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1110), Gianluca Dorini, (Centre for Water Systems, Univ. of Exeter, Harrison Bldg., North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K.), Philip Jonkergouw, (Centre for Water Systems, Univ. of Exeter, Harrison Building, North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K. Bldg., North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K.), Zoran Kapelan, (Centre for Water Systems, Univ. of Exeter, Harrison Building, North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K. Bldg., North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K.), Francesco di Pierro, (Centre for Water Systems, Univ. of Exeter, Harrison Bldg., North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K.), Soon-Thiam Khu, (Centre for Water Systems, Univ. of Exeter, Harrison Bldg., North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K.), Dragan Savic, (Centre for Water Systems, Univ. of Exeter, Harrison Bldg., North Park Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QF, U.K.), Demetrios Eliades, (Dept. of Elec. and Computer Engrg., Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus), Marios Polycarpou, (Dept. of Elec. and Computer Engrg., Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus), Santosh R. Ghimire, (Dept. of Civ. and Envir. Engrg., Michian Tech Univ., Houghton, MI 49931), Brian D. Barkdoll, (Dept. of Civ. and Envir. Engrg., Michian Tech Univ., Houghton, MI 49931), Roberto Gueli, (Proteo SpA, via Santa Sofia 65, 95123 Catania, Italy), Jinhui J. Huang, (School of Engrg., Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NI G 2WI), Edward A. McBean, (School of Engrg., Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NI G 2WI), and William James, (School of Engrg., Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada NI G 2WI)

Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 134, No. 6, November/December 2008, pp. 556-568, (doi:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2008)134:6(556))

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Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: Following the events of September 11, 2001, in the United States, world public awareness for possible terrorist attacks on water supply systems has increased dramatically. Among the different threats for a water distribution system, the most difficult to address is a deliberate chemical or biological contaminant injection, due to both the uncertainty of the type of injected contaminant and its consequences, and the uncertainty of the time and location of the injection. An online contaminant monitoring system is considered as a major opportunity to protect against the impacts of a deliberate contaminant intrusion. However, although optimization models and solution algorithms have been developed for locating sensors, little is known about how these design algorithms compare to the efforts of human designers, and thus, the advantages they propose for practical design of sensor networks. To explore these issues, the Battle of the Water Sensor Networks (BWSN) was undertaken as part of the 8th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium, Cincinnati, Ohio, August 27 – 29, 2006. This paper summarizes the outcome of the BWSN effort and suggests future directions for water sensor networks research and implementation.


ASCE Subject Headings:
Algorithms
Optimization
Probe instruments
Water distribution systems
Water pollution