The Importance of Water Depth for Sparger Performance


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by Charles Clauss,
John S. Gulliver,
Steven C. Wilhelms,



Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: North American Water and Environment Congress & Destructive Water:

Abstract: As part of TVA Hydro Modernization Program, the two 59-year old Francis turbines at Norris Dam have been upgraded with new units. In conjunction with TVA's Reservoir Releases Improvement Program, each of these units have been designed to include multiple alternatives to aerate and increase the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the turbine discharge. Implementation of this new technology represents the culmination of extensive work by many people to help TVA meet its corporate goals relating to customer focus and environmental responsibility. To evaluate the new turbines, an extensive test plan has been developed to measure all the parameters needed to determine the combined environmental and mechanical performance of the units. This information will be used to develop an operating guide to provide the desired uptake of DO in the turbine releases while minimizing the aeration-induced power losses in the units. The data also will be used to help develop and improve scaling criteria needed to allow the new technology to be reliably evaluated for turbine upgrades in similar projects that contain problems with low DO.

Subject Headings: Turbines | Water management | Federal government | Dissolved oxygen | Environmental issues | Aeration | Reservoirs | Water discharge | Dams |

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