Composting, Past, Present and Future


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by Amy L. Li, Greeley and Hansen, Philadelphia, United States,
Carl M. Koch, Greeley and Hansen, Philadelphia, United States,
Darlene E. Mckinney, Greeley and Hansen, Philadelphia, United States,



Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Environmental Engineering:

Abstract: Over the past ten years, the composting process has taken on a different look as a method of processing municipal sludge. Today it is one of the most popular and prevalent methods of sludge processing. This paper reviews the development of the composting process from the early 1960s to the present, from the first extended pile system to more sophisticated in-vessel systems and odor control systems. It also summarizes the capital and operation and maintenance costs for different types of composting systems and provides guidelines for determination of approximate costs.

Subject Headings: Composting | Sludge | Control systems | Maintenance | Assets | Waste treatment | Piles | Local government |

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