Energy-Efficient Approach to Cold-Weather Concreting

by Lynette A. Barna, (corresponding author), (Aff.M.ASCE), Research Civil Engineer; U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755-1290., Lynette.A.Barna@usace.army.mil,
Peter M. Seman, Research Civil Engineer; U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755-1290., Peter.M.Seman@usace.army.mil,
Charles J. Korhonen, P.E., Ph.D., Consultant; ARCTIKOR, 17764 Tapiola Rd., Chassell, MI 49916-9402., korhonenc@hotmail.com,


Serial Information: Issue 11, Pg. 1544-1551


Document Type: Journal Paper

Abstract: Conventional cold-weather concreting is expensive and very energy inefficient. Common practice requires artificial heating of the raw materials and the surrounding environment to create suitable curing conditions for normal concrete. Antifreeze concrete is a new approach to cold-weather concreting without the need for artificial heating. This saves time, money, and energy. The antifreeze concrete technology has been proven in numerous full-scale field demonstrations and is compatible with current concrete construction practices. A laboratory study established the practicality of using antifreeze concrete and developed the tools to mix and cure concrete in subfreezing temperatures. Eight candidate antifreeze formulations were developed in the laboratory and subjected to initial screening tests that showed they were capable of being workable, entraining air, and meeting the design freezing point. Performance testing showed that the strength gain when cured at -4° C is as good as conventional concrete cured at +5° C and that antifreeze mixtures can be made durable. High dosages of chemical admixture used in antifreeze concrete mixtures were not harmful to the concrete. It is recommended that agencies conduct testing on their own to become familiar with the antifreeze mixtures before widespread use.

Subject Headings: Freezing | Concrete construction | Concrete admixtures | Energy efficiency | Strength of materials | Curing | Temperature effects | Mixtures |

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