Cost-Effective Use of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Ponds

by Sherwood C. Reed,
Alan B. Hais,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Waste Disposal


Treatment ponds are a cost-effective alternative for municipal wastewater treatment. When compared to other secondary treatment alternatives, ponds are generally the least costly, require less energy and less skilled operational attention. They can be designed to consistently meet BOD removal requirements and can achieve significant reductions in nutrients, bacteria, and viruses.

Subject Headings: Water reclamation | Ponds | Municipal wastewater | Financial management | Wastewater treatment | Nutrients | Bacteria | Viruses

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