Nonlocal Integral Formulations of Plasticity and Damage: Survey of Progressby Zdeněk P. Bažant,
Abstract: Modeling of the evolution of distributed damage such as microcracking, void formation, and softening frictional slip necessitates strain-softening constitutive models. The nonlocal continuum concept has emerged as an effective means for regularizing the boundary value problems with strain softening, capturing the size effects and avoiding spurious localization that gives rise to pathological mesh sensitivity in numerical computations. A great variety of nonlocal models have appeared during the last two decades. This paper reviews the progress in the nonlocal models of integral type, and discusses their physical justifications, advantages, and numerical applications.
Subject Headings: Strain hardening and softening | Numerical methods | Integrals | Cracking | Voids | Friction | Constitutive relations
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