# Temperature Effects in Low-Transport, Flat-Bed Flows

*by*Brent D. Taylor, C.E.C.; U.S. Navy; formerly, Grad. Res. Asst., W. M. Keck Lab. of Hydr. and Water Resources, California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA,

Vito A. Vanoni, (F.ASCE), Prof. of Hydr.; W. M. Keck Lab. of Hydr. and Water Resources, California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA,

**Serial Information**:

*Journal of the Hydraulics Division*, 1972, Vol. 98, Issue 8, Pg. 1427-1445

**Document Type:**Journal Paper

**Abstract:**Experimental data show that a dimensionless bed-load discharge q

_{*b}= q

_{b}/U

_{*b}D

_{g}can be expressed as a function of a boundary Reynolds number R

_{*b}= U

_{*b}D

_{g}/ν and a dimensionless shear stress τ

_{*b}= τ

_{ob}/(γ

_{s}-γ)D

_{g}in which q

_{b}= bedload discharge in volume per unit-width and time; U

_{*b}= (τ

_{ob}/ρ)

^{1/2}= shear velocity; τ

_{ob}= bed shear stress; ρ = density of the water; D

_{g}= geometric mean size of sediment, ν = kinematic viscosity in the water, and γ and γ

_{s}are, respectively, the specific weight of water and sediment. Contours of Q

_{*b}plotted on a Shields graph (i.e., τ* vs R

_{*b}) have the same shape as the Shields curve and the contour, q

_{*b}= 10

^{-2}, follows it closely. The effect of temperature on τ

_{o}and q

_{sb}is shown by the data. For R

_{*b}< 20 increase in the temperature of a flow results in a decrease in τ

_{o}and τ

_{*b}and an increase in R

_{*b}, q

_{sg}and q

_{*b}. For 20 < R

_{*b}< 200 an increase in water temperature results in an increase in τ

_{ob}, τ

_{*b}and R

_{*b}and a decrease in q

_{sb}and q

_{*b}> 200 there is no temperature effect.

**Subject Headings:**Water discharge | Shear stress | Temperature effects | Boundary shear | Bed loads | Sediment | Domain boundary | Reynolds number

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