# Temperature Effects in Low-Transport, Flat-Bed Flows

*by*Brent D. Taylor, C.E.C.; U.S. Navy; formerly, Grad. Res. Asst., W. M. Keck Lab. of Hydr. and Water Resources, California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA,

Vito A. Vanoni, (F.ASCE), Prof. of Hydr.; W. M. Keck Lab. of Hydr. and Water Resources, California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA,

**Serial Information**:

*Journal of the Hydraulics Division*, 1972, Vol. 98, Issue 8, Pg. 1427-1445

**Document Type:**Journal Paper

**Abstract:**

Experimental data show that a dimensionless bed-load discharge q_{*b} = q_{b}/U_{*b} D_{g} can be expressed as a function of a boundary Reynolds number R_{*b} = U_{*b}D_{g}/ν and a dimensionless shear stress τ_{*b} = τ_{ob}/(γ_{s}-γ)D_{g} in which q_{b} = bedload discharge in volume per unit-width and time; U_{*b} = (τ_{ob}/ρ)^{1/2} = shear velocity; τ_{ob} = bed shear stress; ρ = density of the water; D_{g} = geometric mean size of sediment, ν = kinematic viscosity in the water, and γ and γ_{s} are, respectively, the specific weight of water and sediment. Contours of Q_{*b} plotted on a Shields graph (i.e., τ* vs R_{*b}) have the same shape as the Shields curve and the contour, q_{*b} = 10^{-2}, follows it closely. The effect of temperature on τ_{o} and q_{sb} is shown by the data. For R_{*b} < 20 increase in the temperature of a flow results in a decrease in τ_{o} and τ_{*b} and an increase in R_{*b}, q_{sg} and q_{*b}. For 20 < R_{*b} < 200 an increase in water temperature results in an increase in τ_{ob}, τ_{*b} and R_{*b} and a decrease in q_{sb} and q_{*b} > 200 there is no temperature effect.

**Subject Headings:**Temperature effects | Shear stress | Water discharge | Boundary shear | Bed loads | Sediment | Reynolds number | Domain boundary

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